Neural Networks and Deep Learning

Written by: Stephen Hsu

Primary Source: Information Processing

One of the SCI FOO sessions I enjoyed the most this year was a discussion of deep learning by AI researcher Juergen Schmidhuber. For an overview of recent progress, see this recent paper. Also of interest: Michael Nielsen’s pedagogical book project.

An application which especially caught my attention is described by Schmidhuber here:

Many traditional methods of Evolutionary Computation [15-19] can evolve problem solvers with hundreds of parameters, but not millions. Ours can [1,2], by greatly reducing the search space through evolving compact, compressed descriptions [3-8] of huge solvers. For example, a Recurrent Neural Network [34-36] with over a million synapses or weights learned (without a teacher) to drive a simulated car based on a high-dimensional video-like visual input stream.

More details here. They trained a deep neural net to drive a car using visual input (pixels from the driver’s perspective, generated by a video game); output consists of steering orientation and accelerator/brake activation. There was no hard coded structure corresponding to physics — the neural net optimized a utility function primarily defined by time between crashes. It learned how to drive the car around the track after less than 10k training sessions.

For some earlier discussion of deep neural nets and their application to language translation, see here. Schmidhuber has also worked on Solomonoff universal induction.

These TED videos give you some flavor of Schmidhuber’s sense of humor :-) Apparently his younger brother (mentioned in the first video) has transitioned from theoretical physics to algorithmic finance. Schmidhuber on China.

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Stephen Hsu
Stephen Hsu is vice president for Research and Graduate Studies at Michigan State University. He also serves as scientific adviser to BGI (formerly Beijing Genomics Institute) and as a member of its Cognitive Genomics Lab. Hsu’s primary work has been in applications of quantum field theory, particularly to problems in quantum chromodynamics, dark energy, black holes, entropy bounds, and particle physics beyond the standard model. He has also made contributions to genomics and bioinformatics, the theory of modern finance, and in encryption and information security. Founder of two Silicon Valley companies—SafeWeb, a pioneer in SSL VPN (Secure Sockets Layer Virtual Private Networks) appliances, which was acquired by Symantec in 2003, and Robot Genius Inc., which developed anti-malware technologies—Hsu has given invited research seminars and colloquia at leading research universities and laboratories around the world.
Stephen Hsu

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