Written by: Spencer Greenhalgh
Primary Source: Spencer Greenhalgh
I do a lot of reading, thinking, and writing about educational games, and one of my biggest pet peeves is researchers of or advocates for educational games that treat them as a monolith. You know, the all games = all good = all the time sort of approach. I prefer to think about games the same way that I think about all educational technology: Pick something that’s going to work for your goals and your context.
Over the past year and a half, I’ve been thinking about how game design can inform our choices on which educational games to choose. Originally, I focused a lot on specific elements of game design, such as particular mechanics or themes. However, lately, I’ve been thinking more in terms of genres: collections of games that have similar mechanics, themes, and other features. Foster and Mishra (2009) have argued that “each game genre reflects a certain design stance taken towards any given domain” (p. 39) and that a game’s “design stance, from an educational point of view, can be seen to be an implicit pedagogical approach—with implicit theories of learning, behavior, and epistemology” (p. 39).
So, particular game genres may be able to serve as a helpful heuristic for picking the right game for our context. There are a lot of different ways of (and, I understand, a fair number of heated debates about) identifying different and distinct genres of games, so I thought I’d see if I could identify some “naturally occurring genres” in analog (i.e., board, card, and tabletop) games. That is, instead of coming up with a taxonomy of genres based on my own experience, I turned to some existing data on design features that exist in analog games.
With some help from Matt Koehler, my advisor, I collected data on over 13,000 games in the BoardGameGeek database. Each of these games can be tagged with up to 135 Categories or Mechanics, each of which indicates the presence of some design feature, from Dice Rolling to Science Fiction. I then used exploratory factor analysis to see if I could find fifteen dimensions (which I interpreted as game genres) that represent the underlying structure of these features.
I’m not going to go into a lot of detail about my methods or code (though I’m happy to answer questions), both because this isn’t a typical factor analysis situation and because I’m still trying to figure out if factor analysis (and the particular way that I did factor analysis) is the best way to get at this question. So, I’m not presenting this as a definitive account of “naturally occurring genres” so much as a fun first step.
Take a look at the list below; do these genres seem to run the gamut? Can you think of games that don’t easily fit in these genres?
War Games: simulate conflict of some kind and are often set during historical conflicts
Party Games: emphasize amusement and quick answers over long-term strategic thinking and often include mechanics like acting, singing, or answering trivia
Train Games: are thematically focused on railroads and challenge players to deliver goods, build routes, and invest in companies
Growth Games: involve either expanding the influence of a civilization or increasing the size and efficiency of a city, farm, or organization
Adventure Games: invite players to explore new areas and fight enemies and often have a fantasy theme
Pattern-based Games: require players to engage with mathematics, patterns, and puzzles
Interaction Games: rely heavily on participation from and interaction between the players, including bluffing, negotiating, trading, and voting
Deduction Games: challenge players to reason their way to discovering hidden information about other players or the game’s scenario and often have a mystery or espionage theme associated with them
Card Games: driven largely or entirely by cards and associated mechanics
Educational Games: have strong, obvious connections to traditional academic content areas like math or science and are often explicitly designed for educational purposes
Thematic Games: refers to games wherein themes such as animals, pirates, or prehistory play a prominent role and that include simple mechanics accessible to children
Horror Games: are focused on a horror theme, such as zombies
Action Programming Games: require players to plan one or several turns in advance and then carry them out simultaneously; often associated with combat between aircraft or spacecraft
Media-based Games: have connections with larger media franchises, including video games and television
Wagering Games: rely heavily on chance. To succeed, players must consider odds and often have the chance to wager money, points or success on the results of chance-based contests
Foster, A. N., & Mishra, P. (2009). Games, claims, genres & learning. In R. E. Ferdig (Ed.), Handbook of research on effective electronic gaming in education (pp. 33–50). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.